This post could have been titled : What to see in Prague if you wanted to go for a roughly 10km walk. Or what to do in Prague if you've only got one day. Or better yet, what to do in Prague when there is no flood warning In fact this is my essential guide to Prague so enjoy :) First things first, link to the map of the itinerary I suggest you, this is from mapy.cz.
here. Let's say for example, you get off the udnerground at Malostranska station. You are at the foot of the castle and you can go against (one) flow of tourists by climbing the old castle steps and going to the Castle by what is usually considered it's back door. In Prague you will never be able to avoid all tourists all the time : they come at you from all directions, every time. But they normally come down from the Castle this way (so not up) and you should have less of them to worry about. Bonus point is the Castle wineyard.
Walk out of the Castle (notice the big Hercules figures at the main gate?). Don't forget to take pictures of the panorama from both the entrance and exit. Just try to find a space among the tourists perched on the wall.
Going around you can pass through a garden or park, these are hidden gems of Prague: the Vojanovy sady or the Valdstejnska zahrada. Attention, it is a lot of walking around so go there only if you are ready for it.
Next, cross the bridge, of course, but take care, it is usually full of tourists. So full that it takes longer than you would think to cross. Once on the other side of the bridge, go into Josefov, the Jewish quarter by passing through Old town. Take a look at the Castle from the Rudolfinum, a great concert hall and then continue to the jewish cemetery's back door for a peek at the tombstones without paying the exaggerated fee.
No tour of Prague would be complete without the Clock in the Old Town Square. It is easy to find: just look for were there are the most tourists. Take a walk around the Square. Sometimes there are some attactions or a market. Go inside St Tyn, the Church with 2 black belltowers.
Now you see the National Museum, walk up to the Statue of Vaclav. This is a historic place because Czech people like to start their revolutions from here. The museum offers another pretty view of Prague. After you finish taking your pictures, go to the underground station and take the tube back to the airport (towards Zlicin and then bus 100 or to the train station and then the Airport Express bus).